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Simulation of fire exposed structures. Validation of the programs BISTRA & VOLTRA according to the EUROCODES (EN 1992-1-2:2004)

Simulation of fire exposed structures. Validation of the programs BISTRA & VOLTRA according to the EUROCODES (EN 1992-1-2:2004)

EN 1992-1-2: 2004 Annex A contains a 2D test reference case for validating transient simulation programs in case of fire exposed structures. A concrete column (h x b = 300 mm x 160 mm) is exposed to fire conditions. The case is simulated using the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA.

keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, EN 1992-1-2:2004, fire, dynamic, concrete

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Bisco validation EN ISO 11855-2 floor heating

Bisco validation EN ISO 11855-2 floor heating

EN 15377 Annex D of the standard EN ISO 11855-2:2015 contains a test example that must be used to verify a steady state numerical calculation program. The program BISCO is used to simulate the test example.

keywords: BISCO, EN ISO 11855-2, floor heating, validation, standard

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Simulation of frame cavity heat transfer using BISCO v10w & BISCO v11w

Simulation of frame cavity heat transfer using BISCO v10w & BISCO v11w

In window frames, the heat transfer through air cavities is often a quite important part of the global heat transfer through them.  This paper discusses how heat transfer through air cavities is treated in BISCO in line with EN 10077-2. 

keywords: BISCO, RADCON, EN 10077-2, window frame, cavity heat transfer

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Exercise junction roof wall

Exercise junction roof wall

In this exercise a dxf file is imported in BISCO to calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a roof-wall junction. The geometry is then imported in TRISCO to carry out the same calculation in 3D (in line with EN 10211). 

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, EN 10211, dxf to BISCO, BISCO to TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance

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3D & 2D Simulation of fixings – validation of EN 12631:2017 ANNEX E

3D & 2D Simulation of fixings – validation of EN 12631:2017 ANNEX E

Annex E of the standard ISO 12631:2017 contains a smoothed λ method to include the thermal effect of fixings in 2D numerical calculations. It is implemented in BISCO and the results are compared to a realistic 3D simulation in SOLIDO and to other alternative methods in BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, SOLIDO, screws, 2D numerical method, EN 12631–Annex E

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Calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer using the program BISCO

Calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer using the program BISCO

The calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer according to EN ISO 10077-2 requires two BISCO simulations.  A first one, with an insulation panel instead of the glazing, results in the thermal transmittance of the frame.  From this value and from a second simulation, with a specific glazing, the linear thermal transmittance of the glazing spacer can be derived.

Keywords: BISCO, spacer, EN ISO 10077-2

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Simulation of internal surface corner heat transfer using the RADCON module

Simulation of internal surface corner heat transfer using the RADCON module

According to standard 10077-2, reduced heat transfer coefficients should be applied at internal corners. As an alternative, the use of the type BC_SKY (RADCON module) in BISCO allows a rather correct physical simulation of the surface heat transfer by radiation and convection. In this document both methods are implemented and compared for 4 cases.

Keywords: BISCO, internal corner, heat transfer coefficient, EN 10077-2, EN 6946

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Thermal simulation of non-ventilated cavities using the RADCON module

Thermal simulation of non-ventilated cavities using the RADCON module

This document discusses the methods described in various standards for the non-ventilated cavities thermal simulations and their implementation in the Physibel software. This includes the λeq and the radiosity methods of EN 10077-2, with both linear and non-linear radiation models.  

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, non-ventilated cavities, EN 10077-2, EN 6946, EN 673

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Program TRISCO – Node temperature postprocessor

Program TRISCO – Node temperature postprocessor

A postprocessor spreadsheet tool is discussed in this document. It allows reporting the node temperatures at selected grid positions.

Keywords: TRISCO, node temperature, spreadsheet tool

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Program TRISCO – Variable parameter analysis

Program TRISCO – Variable parameter analysis

A postprocessor spreadsheet tool for a variable parameter analysis using TRISCO is discussed in this document. An example is given to obtain the linear thermal transmittance of a roof edge as a function of the thermal conductivity of the thermal break material.

Keywords: TRISCO, variable parameter analysis, spreadsheet tool

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Validation of the programs TRISCO & SOLIDO according to ISO 10211

Validation of the programs TRISCO & SOLIDO according to ISO 10211

Annex C of the standard ISO 10211 contains 4 test reference cases (2 2D and 2 3D) that must be used in order to be classified as a three-dimensional steady-state high precision method. The programs TRISCO and SOLIDO are used to simulate the 4 test examples.

Keywords: TRISCO, SOLIDO, validation, standards, EN ISO 10211

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TRISCO Exercises

TRISCO Exercises

This document includes 5 exercises of TRISCO simulations: Cladding fixed with brackets; Brick wall; Brace; Exercise Pilotex from the manual and Junction roof-wall.

Keywords: TRISCO, 3D heat transfer, brackets, brick wall, brace, junction roof-wall

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Simulation of frame cavity heat transfer using BISCO v10w & BISCO v11w

Simulation of frame cavity heat transfer using BISCO v10w & BISCO v11w

The standard ISO 10077-2 allows two methods to be used for the calculation of the global heat transfer through cavities: the single equivalent thermal conductivity method and the radiosity method. The aim of the present document is to discuss and compare both methods for users of BISCO version 10w and 11w with examples of sample frame and detailed cavity simulations.

Keywords: BISCO, 2D heat transfer, frame cavity, equivalent lambda, radiosity method, EN ISO 10277-2

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Validation of simplifying the thermal simulation of an object with a 3D sloped metal bar

Validation of simplifying the thermal simulation of an object with a 3D sloped metal bar

Objects containing sloped metal bars can be simulated thermally using the Physibel program SOLIDO.  Because of the sloped shape a dense grid is required for a precise thermal simulation.  Therefore, when simulating complex details containing sloped metal bars, it is often of interest to make a rectangular simplification.  A few simplification methods are validated.

Keywords: TRISCO, SOLIDO, sloped shape, rectangular simplification

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Simulation of 2D heat transfer BISCO versus TRISCO

Simulation of 2D heat transfer BISCO versus TRISCO

The program TRISCO is initially made to simulate block shaped 2D/3D objects the program BISCO is limited to 2D but allows objects with any shape. For rectangular 2D objects BISCO and TRISCO result in almost identical results. 2 examples are given that show that this is also valid for non-rectangular 2D objects on the condition that a surface heat transfer correction is applied.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, 2D heat transfer, surface heat transfer, correction

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Floor thermal transmittance and foundation linear transmittance

Floor thermal transmittance and foundation linear transmittance

To calculate the thermal transmittance of a floor on ground Ug, EN 13370 allows several methods: a 3D numerical method, a 2D numerical method and a simplified method. To calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a wall/floor junction ψg only the 2D and the 3D numerical methods are applicable. A case study shows the use of these methods.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, floor, foundation, EN 13370

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Linear transmittance of an internal wall foundation

Linear transmittance of an internal wall foundation

The heat flow through a thermal bridge caused by an internal wall foundation depends on the size of the building and on the location of the internal wall. Therefore it is relatively complex to derive the linear thermal transmittance of such foundation details.  A 3D thermal simulation of the whole floor is required. A simplified method is proposed in this document and validated, using a case study.

Keywords: TRISCO, internal wall, foundation, thermal bridge

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Linear thermal transmittance of a wall-floor junction

Linear thermal transmittance of a wall-floor junction

The linear thermal transmittance of a wall-floor junction is calculated using the program TRISCO.

Keywords: TRISCO, wall floor junction, linear thermal transmittance, thermal bridge

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Linear and point thermal transmittance of thermal bridges

Linear and point thermal transmittance of thermal bridges

The linear thermal transmittance and the point thermal transmittance for an external wall containing both a linear thermal bridge and a point thermal bridge are calculated using the program TRISCO.

Keywords: TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance, point thermal transmittance, thermal bridge

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The linear transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail

The linear transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail

A procedure to calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail according to EN ISO 13370 is explained using a case study.

Keywords: BISCO, ground floor, window sill, linear thermal transmittance, EN 13370, EN 10211

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Repeating thermal bridging

Repeating thermal bridging

A massive brickwork wall is internally insulated.  The thermal insulation is interrupted by a wooden stud at regular distances, causing a thermal bridge effect.  This thermal bridge effect is quantified using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, thermal bridge, repetition, thermal transmittance

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2D-3D Thermal evaluation of a roof junction

2D-3D Thermal evaluation of a roof junction

For a roof junction construction detail the linear thermal transmittance and the point thermal transmittance are derived, for both the internal and the external dimension system, using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.  Also the 3D temperature course is derived allowing a surface condensation risk evaluation.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, thermal bridge, roof junction

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Linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner

Linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner

The calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner is discussed. This thermal bridge effect is quantified using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance, wooden frame, corner

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Thermal analysis of a wall-window junction

Thermal analysis of a wall-window junction

The thermal transmittance of a wall-window junction is calculated according to the applicable European standards.  2 approaches to analyse the problem are discussed: a 2D heat transmission calculation and a heat transmission calculation ‘by hand’.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, wall window junction, EN 6946, EN 10077-2, EN 10211

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Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part I: opaque constructions

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part I: opaque constructions

The knowledge of the maximum temperature that can occur in the building envelope is often of interest to investigate damage risk.  Such thermal analysis can be done using multiple Physibel programs.  Increasing levels of accuracy, corresponding to a decreasing degree of simplification, can be applied, as shown in multiple case studies.

Keywords: BISCO, CAPSOL, BISTRA, envelope, summer, opaque, EN 13791, EN 13792, ISO 6946, EN 10077-2

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Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part II: transparent constructions

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part II: transparent constructions

The knowledge of the maximum temperature that can occur in the building envelope is often of interest to investigate damage risk.  A case study shows how the program BISTRA is used to simulate the temperature course in a glazed façade during a sunny day.

Keywords: BISTRA, summer, glazed façade, ISO 10456, EN 673

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2D&3D transient simulations using the solar processor

2D&3D transient simulations using the solar processor

Multiple simulation examples, with growing complexity, explain the use of the program VOLTRA for simulating the 2D & 3D transient behaviour of a room with a double façade.

Keywords: VOLTRA, solar radiation, double façade, ventilated cavity ISO 10456, EN 673

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Simulating 2D interstitial condensation using the program BISCO

Simulating 2D interstitial condensation using the program BISCO

BISCO is designed for simulating two-dimensional steady state heat transfer.  However, as the governing mathematical equations for vapour diffusion are similar to the ones for heat transfer, the program can be used for simulating vapour diffusion as well.  The document explains how to use BISCO to predict interstitial condensation in a construction detail.

Keywords: BISCO, condensation, vapour diffusion, vapour pressure

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Air cavity – Stack effect simulation

Air cavity – Stack effect simulation

An empirical method is used to calculate the stack effect in an air cavity or in a room connected to an environment at a different temperature through an inlet and an outlet at different levels.  The method is implemented in an Excel spreadsheet. An example is given on how to use the method in the program CAPSOL.

Keywords: CAPSOL, stack effect, cavity, spreadsheet, airflow

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The equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate

The equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate

The heat transfer through building components including perforated metal plates is 3D.  If a 2D simulation is preferred or if the 3D component is relatively complex, it is helpful to replace the perforated plate by a homogeneous plate. A method for calculating the equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate is explained and validated.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, equivalent conductivity, 3D, 2D, ISO 10211

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Phase-change materials

Phase-change materials

A phase-change material (PCM) stores and releases heat when melting and freezing, which occur at a given temperatures.  The programs VOLTRA and BISTRA allow simulating the thermal behaviour of objects in which such PCM’s are embedded. As an example, the temperature course in 2 identical rooms, one without and one with PCM is simulated.  2 cases are discussed: a first one with a pure PCM, a second one with a board that is commercially available.

Keywords: VOLTRA, BISTRA, PCM, room temperature

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Heat losses from a radiator to a glazed façade

Heat losses from a radiator to a glazed façade

The heat losses through an external wall behind a radiator are higher than the ones estimated by a standard wall heat loss calculation.  This is mainly due to radiation.  An example shows how to investigate the supplementary radiation heat loss and how to evaluate improvements such as radiation shields.

Keywords: BISCO, glazed façade, radiation, shielding, RADCON, EN 6946

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Dealing with thin metallic layers in the program BISCO

Dealing with thin metallic layers in the program BISCO

The heat transfer through thin metallic layers can be simulated using the Physibel programs TRISCO and BISCO.  Whereas thin layers are possible in TRISCO (through thin grid widths), the lowest layer thickness in BISCO is limited to the pixel size.  A very small pixel size sometimes results in a too large bitmap due to a memory problem.  An alternative approach for such cases is proposed. The method is validated for a plastic glazing spacer covered with a metallic layer.

Keywords: BISCO, thin layers, metallic, glazing spacer

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Thermal simulation of vacuum glazing

Thermal simulation of vacuum glazing

Creating a vacuum layer between 2 glazing panes, of which one has a low emissivity coating, results theoretically in a glazing with a very low thermal transmittance, due to a very low heat transfer by conduction and radiation over the cavity.  However, practically border and punctual spacers are required to maintain the vacuum. These spacers cause an additional 3D conduction heat transfer effect, increasing the thermal transmittance.  The vacuum glazing is simulated in 3D using the program TRISCO with the RADCON module.

Keywords: TRISCO, vacuum glazing, spacers, RADCON, EN 673

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BISCO – Sample data

BISCO – Sample data

8 examples of BISCO simulation files

Keywords: BISCO, vertical joint, building sections, foundation, brick

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BISCO – Sample window frames

BISCO – Sample window frames

A dozen of examples of BISCO simulation of window frames are given and detailed, including aluminium, wood, PVC and steel frames.

Keywords: BISCO, window frames, examples

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Round-robin simulations of the ISO 10077-2 examples using the program BISCO v10

Round-robin simulations of the ISO 10077-2 examples using the program BISCO v10

While the 2003 version of ISO 10077-2 defined an equivalent thermal conductivity to simulate radiation and convection or conduction through cavities, the 2017 version also includes a detailed radiation method. The annexes contain examples for the validation of calculation programs.  In the framework of a round robin test BISCO version 10w is used to calculate these examples.

Keywords: BISCO, RR simulation, radiosity method, RADCON, ISO 10077-2

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Validation of the program BISCO according to ISO 10211

Validation of the program BISCO according to ISO 10211

Annex C of the standard ISO 10211 contains 2 two-dimensional test reference cases.  In order to be classified as a two-dimensional steady-state high precision method, BISCO shall give results corresponding with those of these 2 cases.

Keywords: BISCO, standard examples, validation, ISO 10211

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Clear sky radiation

Clear sky radiation

Due to clear sky radiation the external building envelope surface temperature can be lower than the outdoors air temperature.  A roof edge, in which a condensation problem occurred in early spring, is simulated both under steady state and transient conditions.  The case studies show that the clear sky radiation causes the condensation problem.

Keywords: BISCO, clear sky, radiation, glazing, ventilated cavity, RADCON

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Thermal analysis of a floor heating system

Thermal analysis of a floor heating system

For a floor heating system, the water temperature course and the floor temperature distribution are simulated using the transient programs BISTRA and VOLTRA, both in steady and transient state.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, floor heating, cooling, inertia

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Efficiency of frost insulation to protect a foundation

Efficiency of frost insulation to protect a foundation

A case study shows how the program BISTRA can be used to evaluate the efficiency of frost insulation protecting a foundation.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, foundation, frost insulation

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Thermal simulation of reflective foils

Thermal simulation of reflective foils

When the material surfaces around a cavity have a low infrared emissivity, for example if they are covered by an aluminium foil, the radiation heat transfer is reduced.  Using an example, it is shown how to deal with such reduced cavity heat transfer in the Physibel software.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, reflective foils, radiation, RADCON, ISO 6946

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Transient solar heat gains through a glazing with a solar shading

Transient solar heat gains through a glazing with a solar shading

A method for calculating the effect of solar shading systems on the solar transmittance of a glazing is explained.  The solar factor as defined in EN 410 is of little use for this purpose because it is defined for a solar radiation with a direct component that is perpendicular to the glazing.  The programs BISTRA (2D) and VOLTRA (3D) contain a solar processor that takes the sun position into account and allow simulating a kind of transient solar factor.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, glazing, shading, solar radiation

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Create STL with SketchUp for SOLIDO/TRISCO

Create STL with SketchUp for SOLIDO/TRISCO

The steps are described to create STL files with Sketchup and use them for SOLIDO or TRISCO: from the drawing to the importation of a STL file in TRISCO.

Keywords: SOLIDO, TRISCO, STL files, Google SketchUp

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Clear sky radiation visual validation

Clear sky radiation visual validation

On a clear sky winter morning hoar-frost occurs at the external glazing surface of a garret-window.  The case is simulated using the program TRISCO (with RADCON module).

Keywords: TRISCO, radiation, frost, glazing, visual validation

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Experimental validation of transient heat transfer simulation

Experimental validation of transient heat transfer simulation

The temperature evolution of a small barrel of hot water positioned in a room with almost constant temperature was measured and compared to the numerical simulation of the cooling process.  2 simulations were made, one using an analytical formula and another one using the program VOLTRA.

Keywords: VOLTRA, experimental validation, cooling process, transient

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Low emissivity visual validation

Low emissivity visual validation

On a single glazing, condensation occurs more intensively behind a copper coffee pot.  This is due to the low emissivity of the coffee-pot.  A simulation using the program TRISCO (with RADCON module) results in a similar isotherm course as the condensation pattern.

Keywords: TRISCO, radiation, condensation, visual validation

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The thermal transmittance of masonry according to EN 1745

The thermal transmittance of masonry according to EN 1745

Some examples are given showing how to calculate the thermal transmittance of masonry according to the standard EN 1745. The examples were prepared using the programs BISCO, TRISCO and SOLIDO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, SOLIDO, masonry, EN 1745

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2D-3D thermal evaluation of a roof junction

2D-3D thermal evaluation of a roof junction

The heat loss through a thermal bridge between 2 environments (typically indoors and outdoors) can be described using a single linear thermal transmittance (ψ-value). For a thermal bridge between 3 environments at different temperatures (e.g. indoors, outdoors and attic), 3 ψ-values are required.  The procedure from Annex E of EN ISO 10211, is applied for a sample thermal bridge.

Keywords: BISCO, thermal bridge, 3 environments, roof junction, ISO 10211

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Thermal bridge surface condensation case study

Thermal bridge surface condensation case study

On the internal surface of thermal bridges low temperatures occur in wintertime, causing a risk of surface condensation and mould growth.  A 3D corner joining 2 façade walls and a flat roof is analysed as an example.

Keywords: TRISCO, thermal bridge, condensation, corner, mould growth

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Simulating ventilated double façades using the program BISCO or TRISCO

Simulating ventilated double façades using the program BISCO or TRISCO

BISCO and TRISCO (with RADCON module) can be used to simulate ventilated double façades in steady state.  The ventilation heat flow is replaced by an equivalent convective heat flow to a small pipe. The results are validated using the program VOLTRA.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, VOLTRA, ventilated double façade, equivalent convective heat flow

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View factor calculation using the program TRISCO

View factor calculation using the program TRISCO

View factors are used in the simulation of radiation heat transfer.  In the Physibel 2D & 3D software the view factors are automatically calculated and implemented in the radiation equations (RADCON module).  The explicit knowledge of the view factors is usually of little importance, but sometimes view factors values are needed for use in other applications, for example in the building simulation program CAPSOL.  An example is given how view factor values can be derived from the program TRISCO.

Keywords: TRISCO, view factors, room

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Visual validation of 3D heat transfer

Visual validation of 3D heat transfer

At first sight a visual validation of heat transfer seems to be a contradiction: only the infrared radiation and not the visual light emitted by surfaces is related to the temperature.  However, as surface condensation is visual and depends on the surface temperature, a visual validation of heat transfer is possible by comparing the pattern of drying surface condensation to the simulated isotherms on the surface.

Keywords: VOLTRA, visual validation, condensation, drying pattern, transient

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Experimental validation of the program VOLTRA for 3D transient heat transfer

Experimental validation of the program VOLTRA for 3D transient heat transfer

Two experimental validations of the program VOLTRA for simulating 3D transient heat transfer were done on a small glazed wooden box.  In the first indoors experiment the transient heat transfer due to a sudden internal power source was investigated.  In the second experiment the box was put outdoors, allowing validating the solar processor module in VOLTRA. 

Keywords: VOLTRA, experimental validation, glazed box, solar processor

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Validation of the programs BISCO and TRISCO according to EN 1745

Validation of the programs BISCO and TRISCO according to EN 1745

Annex D of the standard EN 1745:2012 “Masonry and masonry products – Methods for determining thermal properties” contains 3 test reference cases (1 2D and 2 3D). The validations simulations are done using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, EN 1745, masonry

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