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T-SLDc - Defining air cavities in STL- imported geometries - Structural Glazing

T-SLDc - Defining air cavities in STL- imported geometries - Structural Glazing

Tutorial key elements:

  • Modelling a 3D glazed façade via STL files
  • Adding boundary conditions making use of superposition principle
  • Defining air cavities in mullion and transom by splitting zone

Keywords: SOLIDO, STL, structural glazing, curtain wall, tutorial

T-SLDb - Importing full model and boundary conditions via STL files - Rainscreen cladding

Tutorial key elements:

  • Importing a rainscreen cladding wall via STL files
  • Derived thermal properties: linear, point and equivalent thermal transmittance (ψ, χ, Uequi)

Keywords: SOLIDO, STL, bracket, rainscreen cladding, tutorial

T-BSTa - Calculating the temperatures in a wooden frame during a sunny day: getting started with BISTRA

T-BSTa - Calculating the temperatures in a wooden frame during a sunny day: getting started with BISTRA

Tutorial key elements:

  • Climate data as boundary conditions
  • Thermal properties
  • Definition of solar data (position of thermal model in 3D coordinate system) and sun obstacles
  • Graphic output and text output

Keywords: BISTRA, maximum temperature, thermal shock, thermal stress 

G3-Validation of the program SOLIDO: heat transfer through sloped and curved surfaces

G3-Validation of the program SOLIDO: heat transfer through sloped and curved surfaces

This document will discuss 2 validation examples with heat transfer through sloped and curved surface. The numerical results from SOLIDO will be compared with analytical results for conduction through 1) a plan wall and 2) composite walls (plane, cylindrical and spherical wall).

F1-Humid air: theory and spreadsheet tools

F1-Humid air: theory and spreadsheet tools

A brief overview of the theory of humid air is given in order to better understand the phenomenon of condensation in building constructions. The theory is accompanied with 2 spreadsheet tools:

  • A humid air calculator
  • A condensation/evaporation mass flow calculator

Keywords: humid air, condensation, spreadsheet, theory, evaporation, condensation

F2- Preparing indoor and outdoor climate data for use in the physibel program GLASTA according to EN ISO 13788

F2- Preparing indoor and outdoor climate data for use in the physibel program GLASTA according to EN ISO 13788

To evaluate the interstitial condensation risk in plane constructions, indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity or vapour pressure need to be known.  Typically monthly mean values are used.  Monthly mean values for the outdoor climate easily can be found in databases.  During the design stage the use of indoor climate classes as defined in EN ISO 13788:2012 is recommended.  A procedure to prepare these climate data is given.

Keywords: climate class, GLASTA, humid air, condensation, EN13788, spreadsheet

M1 - Trisco2D manual

M1 - Trisco2D manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the Trisco2D application. 

M2 - TRISCO manual

M2 - TRISCO manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the TRISCO application. 

M3 - SOLIDO manual

M3 - SOLIDO manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the SOLIDO application. 

M4 - BISCO manual

M4 - BISCO manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the BISCO application. 

M5 - BISTRA manual

M5 - BISTRA manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the BISTRA application. 

M6 - VOLTRA manual

M6 - VOLTRA manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the VOLTRA application. 

M7 - GLASTA manual

M7 - GLASTA manual

This manual is intended as a complete reference for the GLASTA application. 

C9-Simulating 2D interstitial condensation using the program BISCO and TRISCO/SOLIDO

C9-Simulating 2D interstitial condensation using the program BISCO and TRISCO/SOLIDO

BISCO is designed for simulating two-dimensional steady state heat transfer.  However, as the governing mathematical equations for vapour diffusion are similar to the ones for heat transfer, the program can be used for simulating vapour diffusion as well.  The document explains how to use BISCO to predict interstitial condensation in a construction detail. The same principles can be applied to calculate interstitial condensation in 3D with the programs TRISCO or SOLIDO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, SOLIDO, condensation, vapour diffusion, vapour pressure, relative humidity

T-BSCa-Thermal transmittance of a window profile according to EN ISO 10077-2

This tutorial explains step-by-step how to determine the thermal transmittance (Uf-value) of a window profile. 

Keywords: BISCO, EN 10077-2, frame, Uf

T-BSCb- Linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer according to EN ISO 10077-2

This tutorial explains step-by-step how to determine the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer

Keywords: BISCO, EN 10077-2, spacer, psi-value

A5-Validation of the programs CAPSOL, BISTRA and VOLTRA according to EN ISO 13786

A5-Validation of the programs CAPSOL, BISTRA and VOLTRA according to EN ISO 13786

In EN ISO 13786 , a method is given to calculate dynamic thermal characteristics of 1D building components.  These characteristics can be derived using the transient Physibel programs CAPSOL (version 4.0w), BISTRA and VOLTRA.  For the 2 example components given in annex D of the standard, the characteristics are derived using these programs.

Keywords: CAPSOL, VOLTRA, BISTRA, dynamic thermal characteristics

A10-Validation of the program GLASTA according to EN ISO 13788

A10-Validation of the program GLASTA according to EN ISO 13788

Annex C of the standard EN ISO 13788 contains 2 examples of an interstitial condensation calculation. Both examples are calculated using the program GLASTA.

Keywords: GLASTA, interstitial condensation

A12-Material and boundary conditions: EN ISO 10077-2, EN ISO 6946 and EN ISO 10456 (Colour Database)

A12-Material and boundary conditions: EN ISO 10077-2, EN ISO 6946 and EN ISO 10456 (Colour Database)

This document lists the default Colour database which is based on a selection of materials and boundary conditions from EN ISO 10077-2, EN 6946 and EN ISO 10456.

Keywords: Colour Database, material properties, boundary conditions

B8-Glazed facades: derived thermal properties

B8-Glazed facades: derived thermal properties

From 2D thermal simulations of glazed façade parts several derived thermal properties can be defined.  There purpose is to allow corrections on 1D formulas when doing a whole building thermal analysis.  Typical derived properties and there interrelation are discussed.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, UTJ, Uf, psi

B10-Thermal transmittance of a window according to EN ISO 10077-1

B10-Thermal transmittance of a window according to EN ISO 10077-1

The calculation of the thermal transmittance of a window according to EN ISO 10077 is applied for a window containing 2 different frame sections simulated using the program BISCO.

 Keywords: BISCO, Uw, Uf

B11-Solar factor of a window

B11-Solar factor of a window

The solar factor of a window can be calculated from the solar factor of the opaque frame and the solar factor of the glazing.  In a first section the solar factor of an opaque element is discussed.  In a second section the solar factor of the glazing is discussed.  Then both solar factors are used to derive the window solar factor.

Keywords: BISCO, g-value, g-factor, EN 410

G2-2D THERMAL SIMULATION OF ANGLED AND CURVED SHAPES vs. RECTANGULAR SHAPES: BISCO vs. TRISCO

G2-2D THERMAL SIMULATION OF ANGLED AND CURVED SHAPES vs. RECTANGULAR SHAPES: BISCO vs. TRISCO

The program TRISCO is initially made to simulate block shaped 2D/3D objects. The program uses a rectangular calculation grid. The program BISCO is limited to 2D but allows objects with any shape. The program uses a triangular calculation grid. This document compares both approaches and sets their applicability.

Keywords: TRISCO, BISCO, triangular vs. rectangular grid

T-BSCc- Linear thermal transmittance of a roof junction according to EN ISO 10211

This tutorial explains step-by-step how to determine the linear thermal transmittance of line thermal bridge by the example of a roof junction. 

Keywords: BISCO, EN 10211, roof junction, psi-value

A4-Bisco validation EN ISO 11855-2 floor heating

A4-Bisco validation EN ISO 11855-2 floor heating

EN 15377 Annex D of the standard EN ISO 11855-2:2015 contains a test example that must be used to verify a steady state numerical calculation program. The program BISCO is used to simulate the test example.

keywords: BISCO, EN ISO 11855-2, floor heating, validation, standard

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B12-Air cavities within EN ISO 10077-2: comparison between radiosity method and single equivalent thermal conductivity method

B12-Air cavities within EN ISO 10077-2: comparison between radiosity method and single equivalent thermal conductivity method

In construction elements such as window frames and bricks, the heat transfer through air cavities is often an important part of the global heat transfer through them.  The heat transfer mechanisms are infrared radiation and conduction (in case of still air) or convection (in the case of flowing air).

Keywords: BISCO, RADCON, EN 10077-2, window frame, cavity heat transfer

Exercise junction roof wall

Exercise junction roof wall

In this exercise a dxf file is imported in BISCO to calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a roof-wall junction. The geometry is then imported in TRISCO to carry out the same calculation in 3D (in line with EN 10211). 

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, EN 10211, dxf to BISCO, BISCO to TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance

Program TRISCO – Variable parameter analysis

Program TRISCO – Variable parameter analysis

A postprocessor spreadsheet tool for a variable parameter analysis using TRISCO is discussed in this document. An example is given to obtain the linear thermal transmittance of a roof edge as a function of the thermal conductivity of the thermal break material.

Keywords: TRISCO, variable parameter analysis, spreadsheet tool

F4-Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficients

F4-Calculation of convective heat transfer coefficients

The convective heat transfer coefficient can be derived from empirical relations as described in multiple textbooks on heat transfer.  Some of these relations were implemented in spreadsheet files allowing the calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficient for typical situations.

Keywords: convective surface coefficient, excel tools

F3-Preparing climatologic data in physibel software format

F3-Preparing climatologic data in physibel software format

This document explains how climatic data (Meteonorm, TRY, TMY2s, measured data, standard data) can be converted into the Physibel software format using a spreadsheet file. A procedure is given to control the solar data.

Keywords: climate data, VOLTRA, BISTRA, CAPSOL

D2-U-value estimations based on measured temperatures - internal surface heat transfer

D2-U-value estimations based on measured temperatures - internal surface heat transfer

The theory of 1D steady state heat transfer learns that the thermal transmittance U of a wall with parallel layers easily can be derived from the environmental temperatures θi and θe, the internal surface temperature θis and the internal surface heat transfer coefficient hi.

This would in theory allow to estimate the U-value of 1D-building components based on IR-thermography measurements.

In a case study a temperature distribution in steady state conditions for a well-defined building zone is generated numerically.  The detailed numerical heat transfer simulation, based on 3D conduction, view factor based radiation (radiosity method) and empirical convection, guarantees a quite realistic temperature distribution.

The model is used to assess the uncertainties on U-value estimations based on IR-thermography measurements.

Keywords: U-value estimation, IR thermography

A6-Simulation of fire exposed structures. Validation of the programs BISTRA & VOLTRA according to the EUROCODES (EN 1992-1-2:2004)

A6-Simulation of fire exposed structures. Validation of the programs BISTRA & VOLTRA according to the EUROCODES (EN 1992-1-2:2004)

EN 1992-1-2: 2004 Annex A contains a 2D test reference case for validating transient simulation programs in case of fire exposed structures. A concrete column (h x b = 300 mm x 160 mm) is exposed to fire conditions. The case is simulated using the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, EN 1992-1-2:2004, fire, dynamic, concrete

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A7-Validation of the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA according to DIN EN 1991-1-2NA:2015-09

A7-Validation of the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA according to DIN EN 1991-1-2NA:2015-09

The document DIN EN 1991-1-2/NA (2015-09) annex CC contains test reference cases for validating transient simulation programs in case of fire exposed structures.  The cases are simulated using the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA and the results are within the requested tolerances for each case.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, EN 1991-1-2N/A:2015, fire, dynamic
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A8-Validation of the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA according to SP REPORT 1999:36

A8-Validation of the programs BISTRA and VOLTRA according to SP REPORT 1999:36

This document discusses the BISTRA and VOLTRA simulation results for 8 the reference cases described in SP REPORT 1999:36

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, fire, dynamic
T-TRCa - Geometrical modelling functions: getting started with TRISCO

T-TRCa - Geometrical modelling functions: getting started with TRISCO

This first tutorial deals with the object modelling functions in TRISCO. The overall modelling philosophy via a coordinate system and blocks will be illustrated for a simple room corner. Thereafter, the obtained model will be used to show how to quickly combine and adjust existing models via block transformations.

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model from scratch
  • Coordinate system and blocks
  • Block transformation functions

Keywords: TRISCO, wall-to-roof, exercise

T-TRCb - Geometrical input of a DXF file via TriscoDXF (prepared DXF file)

T-TRCb - Geometrical input of a DXF file via TriscoDXF (prepared DXF file)

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model starting from a DXF file
  • Using TriscoDxf to convert a DXF file to a BMP file, for input in TRISCO
  • Derived thermal properties: linear thermal transmittance (ψ)
  • Generating a calculation report
  • Revolve function to get a 3D object from a 2D geometry

Keywords: TRISCO, wall-to-roof, exercise, DXF, TriscoDXF

T-TRCc - Geometrical input by using a DXF-underlayer (unprepared DXF file)

T-TRCc - Geometrical input by using a DXF-underlayer (unprepared DXF file)

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model with the help of a DXF-underlayer
  • Automatic grid line detection in Trisco2D
  • Interactive material and boundary condition selection
  • Loading Trisco2D models in TRISCO
  • Revolve function to get a 3D object from a 2D geometry
  • Changing thermal palette

Keywords: TRISCO, wall-to-roof, exercise, DXF, Trisco2D

T-SLDa - Geometrical modelling functions: getting started with SOLIDO – mushroom column

T-SLDa - Geometrical modelling functions: getting started with SOLIDO – mushroom column

This first tutorial deals with the object modelling functions in SOLIDO. The overall modelling philosophy of solids, defined via a coordinate system (block points) will be illustrated for a simple mushroom column.

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating solids in SOLIDO
  • Coordinate system and block points
  • Equivalent and point thermal transmittance (Uequi and χ)

Keywords: SOLIDO, solids, mushroom column

T-TR2Da- Equivalent thermal transmittance (U2D) and linear thermal transmittance (Ψ) of a repeating thermal bridge

This tutorial shows how to calculate the U2D-value and ψ-value for a repeating thermal bridge.

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model from scratch
  • Derived thermal properties: U2D-value and ψ-value

Keywords: TRISCO, Trisco2D, EN 10211, interior insulation

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T-TR2Db- Linear thermal transmittance of a roof junction according to EN ISO 10211

This tutorial explains how to model the linear thermal transmittance of a roof junction.

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model starting from a .dxf file
  • Drawing sloped elements
  • Derived thermal properties: linear thermal transmittance (Ψ)

Keywords: TRISCO, Trisco2D, EN 10211, roof junction

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T-TR2Dc- Equivalent thermal transmittance of a slab-on-ground floor (U’g)

This tutorial explains how to calculate the ground heat losses of a slab-on-ground floor.

Tutorial key elements:

  • Creating a geometrical model starting from scratch
  • Interpretation of numerical output
  • Derived thermal properties: equivalent thermal transmittance of a floor on the ground

Keywords: TRISCO, Trisco2D, EN 10211, floor, foundation

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F5-Exporting node temperatures in the programs BISCO & BISTRA (.sol -file)

F5-Exporting node temperatures in the programs BISCO & BISTRA (.sol -file)

This document explains how to handle node temperatures from the solution file with extension .sol for the programs BISTRA & BISCO for external post-processing purposes.

Keywords: BISCO, .sol-file, node temperatures

E1-Create STL with SketchUp or RHINO for SOLIDO/TRISCO

E1-Create STL with SketchUp or RHINO for SOLIDO/TRISCO

The steps are described to create STL files with Sketchup and use them for SOLIDO or TRISCO: from the drawing to the importation of a STL file in TRISCO.

Keywords: SOLIDO, TRISCO, STL files, Google SketchUp

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A9-Validation of the programs BISCO and TRISCO according to EN 1745

A9-Validation of the programs BISCO and TRISCO according to EN 1745

Annex D of the standard EN 1745:2012 “Masonry and masonry products – Methods for determining thermal properties” contains 3 test reference cases (1 2D and 2 3D). The validations simulations are done using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, EN 1745, masonry

D1 - Clear sky radiation visual validation

D1 - Clear sky radiation visual validation

This document discusses the occurrence of hoarfrost due to clear sky radiation.

The first case study discusses formation of frost on the external glazing surface of a roof window. The second case studies the frost pattern on a car, only partly parked in a garage. 

Both cases are simulated as a steady-state problem using the program TRISCO with RADCON.

Keywords: TRISCO, BISCO, radiation, frost, glazing, visual validation

Experimental validation of transient heat transfer simulation

Experimental validation of transient heat transfer simulation

The temperature evolution of a small barrel of hot water positioned in a room with almost constant temperature was measured and compared to the numerical simulation of the cooling process.  2 simulations were made, one using an analytical formula and another one using the program VOLTRA.

Keywords: VOLTRA, experimental validation, cooling process, transient

Low emissivity visual validation

Low emissivity visual validation

On a single glazing, condensation occurs more intensively behind a copper coffee pot.  This is due to the low emissivity of the coffee-pot.  A simulation using the program TRISCO (with RADCON module) results in a similar isotherm course as the condensation pattern.

Keywords: TRISCO,  radiation, condensation, visual validation

B3-The thermal transmittance of masonry according to EN 1745

B3-The thermal transmittance of masonry according to EN 1745

Some examples are given showing how to calculate the thermal transmittance of masonry according to the standard EN 1745. The examples were prepared using the programs BISCO, TRISCO and SOLIDO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, SOLIDO, masonry, EN 1745

2D-3D thermal evaluation of a roof junction

2D-3D thermal evaluation of a roof junction

The heat loss through a thermal bridge between 2 environments (typically indoors and outdoors) can be described using a single linear thermal transmittance (ψ-value). For a thermal bridge between 3 environments at different temperatures (e.g. indoors, outdoors and attic), 3 ψ-values are required.  The procedure from Annex E of EN ISO 10211, is applied for a sample thermal bridge.

Keywords: BISCO, thermal bridge, 3 environments, roof junction, ISO 10211

Thermal bridge surface condensation case study

Thermal bridge surface condensation case study

On the internal surface of thermal bridges low temperatures occur in wintertime, causing a risk of surface condensation and mould growth.  A 3D corner joining 2 façade walls and a flat roof is analysed as an example.

Keywords: TRISCO, thermal bridge, condensation, corner, mould growth

Simulating ventilated double façades using the program BISCO or TRISCO

Simulating ventilated double façades using the program BISCO or TRISCO

BISCO and TRISCO (with RADCON module) can be used to simulate ventilated double façades in steady state.  The ventilation heat flow is replaced by an equivalent convective heat flow to a small pipe. The results are validated using the program VOLTRA.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, VOLTRA, ventilated double façade, equivalent convective heat flow

View factor calculation using the program TRISCO

View factor calculation using the program TRISCO

View factors are used in the simulation of radiation heat transfer.  In the Physibel 2D & 3D software the view factors are automatically calculated and implemented in the radiation equations (RADCON module).  The explicit knowledge of the view factors is usually of little importance, but sometimes view factors values are needed for use in other applications, for example in the building simulation program CAPSOL.  An example is given how view factor values can be derived from the program TRISCO.

Keywords: TRISCO, view factors, room

Visual validation of 3D heat transfer

Visual validation of 3D heat transfer

At first sight a visual validation of heat transfer seems to be a contradiction: only the infrared radiation and not the visual light emitted by surfaces is related to the temperature.  However, as surface condensation is visual and depends on the surface temperature, a visual validation of heat transfer is possible by comparing the pattern of drying surface condensation to the simulated isotherms on the surface.

Keywords: VOLTRA, visual validation, condensation, drying pattern, transient

Experimental validation of the program VOLTRA for 3D transient heat transfer

Experimental validation of the program VOLTRA for 3D transient heat transfer

Two experimental validations of the program VOLTRA for simulating 3D transient heat transfer were done on a small glazed wooden box.  In the first indoors experiment the transient heat transfer due to a sudden internal power source was investigated.  In the second experiment the box was put outdoors, allowing validating the solar processor module in VOLTRA. 

Keywords: VOLTRA, experimental validation, glazed box, solar processor

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part I: opaque constructions

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part I: opaque constructions

The knowledge of the maximum temperature that can occur in the building envelope is often of interest to investigate damage risk.  Such thermal analysis can be done using multiple Physibel programs.  Increasing levels of accuracy, corresponding to a decreasing degree of simplification, can be applied, as shown in multiple case studies.

Keywords: BISCO, CAPSOL, BISTRA, envelope, summer, opaque, EN 13791, EN 13792, ISO 6946, EN 10077-2

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part II: transparent constructions

Thermal analysis of the building envelope in summer conditions – part II: transparent constructions

The knowledge of the maximum temperature that can occur in the building envelope is often of interest to investigate damage risk.  A case study shows how the program BISTRA is used to simulate the temperature course in a glazed façade during a sunny day.

Keywords: BISTRA, summer, glazed façade, ISO 10456, EN 673

2D&3D transient simulations using the solar processor

2D&3D transient simulations using the solar processor

Multiple simulation examples, with growing complexity, explain the use of the program VOLTRA for simulating the 2D & 3D transient behaviour of a room with a double façade.

Keywords: VOLTRA, solar radiation, double façade, ventilated cavity ISO 10456, EN 673

Air cavity – Stack effect simulation

Air cavity – Stack effect simulation

An empirical method is used to calculate the stack effect in an air cavity or in a room connected to an environment at a different temperature through an inlet and an outlet at different levels.  The method is implemented in an Excel spreadsheet. An example is given on how to use the method in the program CAPSOL.

Keywords: CAPSOL, stack effect, cavity, spreadsheet, airflow

The equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate

The equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate

The heat transfer through building components including perforated metal plates is 3D.  If a 2D simulation is preferred or if the 3D component is relatively complex, it is helpful to replace the perforated plate by a homogeneous plate. A method for calculating the equivalent thermal conductivity of a perforated metal plate is explained and validated.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, equivalent conductivity, 3D, 2D, ISO 10211

Phase-change materials

Phase-change materials

A phase-change material (PCM) stores and releases heat when melting and freezing, which occur at a given temperatures.  The programs VOLTRA and BISTRA allow simulating the thermal behaviour of objects in which such PCM’s are embedded. As an example, the temperature course in 2 identical rooms, one without and one with PCM is simulated.  2 cases are discussed: a first one with a pure PCM, a second one with a board that is commercially available.

Keywords: VOLTRA, BISTRA, PCM, room temperature

Heat losses from a radiator to a glazed façade

Heat losses from a radiator to a glazed façade

The heat losses through an external wall behind a radiator are higher than the ones estimated by a standard wall heat loss calculation.  This is mainly due to radiation.  An example shows how to investigate the supplementary radiation heat loss and how to evaluate improvements such as radiation shields.

Keywords: BISCO, glazed façade, radiation, shielding, RADCON, EN 6946

Dealing with thin metallic layers in the program BISCO

Dealing with thin metallic layers in the program BISCO

The heat transfer through thin metallic layers can be simulated using the Physibel programs TRISCO and BISCO.  Whereas thin layers are possible in TRISCO (through thin grid widths), the lowest layer thickness in BISCO is limited to the pixel size.  A very small pixel size sometimes results in a too large bitmap due to a memory problem.  An alternative approach for such cases is proposed. The method is validated for a plastic glazing spacer covered with a metallic layer.

Keywords: BISCO, thin layers, metallic, glazing spacer

C10-Thermal simulation of vacuum glazing

C10-Thermal simulation of vacuum glazing

Creating a vacuum layer between 2 glazing panes, of which one has a low emissivity coating, results theoretically in a glazing with a very low thermal transmittance, due to a very low heat transfer by conduction and radiation over the cavity.  However, practically border and punctual spacers are required to maintain the vacuum. These spacers cause an additional 3D conduction heat transfer effect, increasing the thermal transmittance.  The vacuum glazing is simulated in 3D using the program TRISCO with the RADCON module.

Keywords: TRISCO, vacuum glazing, spacers, RADCON, EN 673

C4-BISCO - sample building components

C4-BISCO - sample building components

This document describes example projects with BISCO related to building components. Following division is made:
- Thermal bridging
- Building physics, energy and thermal comfort
- Masonry

Keywords: BISCO, vertical joint, building sections, foundation, brick

C3-BISCO – Sample window frames

C3-BISCO – Sample window frames

A dozen of examples of BISCO simulation of window frames are given and detailed, including aluminium, wood, PVC and steel frames.

Keywords: BISCO, window frames, examples, shutter box, EN ISO 10077

A1-Validation of the program BISCO according to EN ISO 10077-2:2017

A1-Validation of the program BISCO according to EN ISO 10077-2:2017

Validation of the program BISCO according to Annex G, I and H in EN ISO 10077-2:2017

Keywords: BISCO, validation, EN ISO 10077-2, equivalent thermal conductivity, radiosity, RADCON

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A2-Validation of the program BISCO according to ISO 10211

A2-Validation of the program BISCO according to ISO 10211

Annex C of the standard ISO 10211 contains 2 two-dimensional test reference cases.  In order to be classified as a two-dimensional steady-state high precision method, BISCO shall give results corresponding with those of these 2 cases.

Keywords: BISCO, standard examples, validation, ISO 10211

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C7-Clear sky radiation - undercooling condensation

C7-Clear sky radiation - undercooling condensation

Due to clear sky radiation the external building envelope surface temperature can be lower than the outdoors air temperature.  A roof edge, in which a condensation problem occurred in early spring, is simulated both under steady state and transient conditions.  The case studies show that the clear sky radiation causes the condensation problem.

Keywords: BISCO, clear sky, radiation, glazing, ventilated cavity, RADCON

Thermal analysis of a floor heating system

Thermal analysis of a floor heating system

For a floor heating system, the water temperature course and the floor temperature distribution are simulated using the transient programs BISTRA and VOLTRA, both in steady and transient state.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, floor heating, cooling, inertia

Efficiency of frost insulation to protect a foundation

Efficiency of frost insulation to protect a foundation

A case study shows how the program BISTRA can be used to evaluate the efficiency of frost insulation protecting a foundation.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, foundation, frost insulation

C8-Thermal simulation of reflective foils

C8-Thermal simulation of reflective foils

When the material surfaces around a cavity have a low infrared emissivity, for example if they are covered by an aluminium foil, the radiation heat transfer is reduced.  Using an example, it is shown how to deal with such reduced cavity heat transfer in the Physibel software.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, reflective foils, radiation, RADCON, ISO 6946, low-e

Transient solar heat gains through a glazing with a solar shading

Transient solar heat gains through a glazing with a solar shading

A method for calculating the effect of solar shading systems on the solar transmittance of a glazing is explained.  The solar factor as defined in EN 410 is of little use for this purpose because it is defined for a solar radiation with a direct component that is perpendicular to the glazing.  The programs BISTRA (2D) and VOLTRA (3D) contain a solar processor that takes the sun position into account and allow simulating a kind of transient solar factor.

Keywords: BISTRA, VOLTRA, glazing, shading, solar radiation

B2-3D & 2D Simulation of fixings – validation of EN 12631:2017 ANNEX E

B2-3D & 2D Simulation of fixings – validation of EN 12631:2017 ANNEX E

Annex E of the standard ISO 12631:2017 contains a smoothed λ method to include the thermal effect of fixings in 2D numerical calculations. It is implemented in BISCO and the results are compared to a realistic 3D simulation in SOLIDO and to other alternative methods in BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, SOLIDO, screws, 2D numerical method, EN 12631–Annex E

B9-Calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer using the program BISCO

B9-Calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer using the program BISCO

The calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a glazing spacer according to EN ISO 10077-2 requires two BISCO simulations.  A first one, with an insulation panel instead of the glazing, results in the thermal transmittance of the frame.  From this value and from a second simulation, with a specific glazing, the linear thermal transmittance of the glazing spacer can be derived.

Keywords: BISCO, spacer, EN ISO 10077-2

C5-Simulation of internal surface corner heat transfer using the RADCON module

C5-Simulation of internal surface corner heat transfer using the RADCON module

According to standard 10077-2, reduced heat transfer coefficients should be applied at internal corners. As an alternative, the use of the type BC_SKY (RADCON module) in BISCO allows a rather correct physical simulation of the surface heat transfer by radiation and convection. In this document both methods are implemented and compared for 4 cases.

Keywords: BISCO, internal corner, heat transfer coefficient, EN 10077-2, EN 6946

C6-Thermal simulation of non-ventilated cavities using the RADCON module

C6-Thermal simulation of non-ventilated cavities using the RADCON module

This document discusses the methods described in various standards for the non-ventilated cavities thermal simulations and their implementation in the Physibel software. This includes the λeq and the radiosity methods of EN 10077-2, with both linear and non-linear radiation models.  

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, non-ventilated cavities, EN 10077-2, EN 6946, EN 673

Program TRISCO – Node temperature postprocessor

Program TRISCO – Node temperature postprocessor

A postprocessor spreadsheet tool is discussed in this document. It allows reporting the node temperatures at selected grid positions.

Keywords: TRISCO, node temperature, spreadsheet tool

A3-Validation of the programs TRISCO & SOLIDO according to ISO 10211

A3-Validation of the programs TRISCO & SOLIDO according to ISO 10211

Annex C of the standard ISO 10211 contains 4 test reference cases (2 2D and 2 3D) that must be used in order to be classified as a three-dimensional steady-state high precision method. The programs TRISCO and SOLIDO are used to simulate the 4 test examples.

Keywords: TRISCO, SOLIDO, validation, standards, EN ISO 10211

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TRISCO Exercises

TRISCO Exercises

This document includes 5 exercises of TRISCO simulations: Cladding fixed with brackets; Brick wall; Brace; Exercise Pilotex from the manual and Junction roof-wall.

Keywords: TRISCO, 3D heat transfer, brackets, brick wall, brace, junction roof-wall

G1-Validation of simplifying the thermal simulation of an object with a 3D sloped metal bar

G1-Validation of simplifying the thermal simulation of an object with a 3D sloped metal bar

Objects containing sloped metal bars can be simulated thermally using the Physibel program SOLIDO.  Because of the sloped shape a dense grid is required for a precise thermal simulation.  Therefore, when simulating complex details containing sloped metal bars, it is often of interest to make a rectangular simplification.  A few simplification methods are validated.

Keywords: TRISCO, SOLIDO, sloped shape, rectangular simplification

B6-Floor thermal transmittance and foundation linear transmittance

B6-Floor thermal transmittance and foundation linear transmittance

To calculate the thermal transmittance of a floor on ground Ug, EN 13370 allows several methods: a 3D numerical method, a 2D numerical method and a simplified method. To calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a wall/floor junction ψg only the 2D and the 3D numerical methods are applicable. A case study shows the use of these methods.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, floor, foundation, EN 13370

B7-Linear transmittance of an internal wall foundation

B7-Linear transmittance of an internal wall foundation

The heat flow through a thermal bridge caused by an internal wall foundation depends on the size of the building and on the location of the internal wall. Therefore it is relatively complex to derive the linear thermal transmittance of such foundation details.  A 3D thermal simulation of the whole floor is required. A simplified method is proposed in this document and validated, using a case study.

Keywords: TRISCO, internal wall, foundation, thermal bridge, ground

B14-Linear thermal transmittance of a wall-floor junction

B14-Linear thermal transmittance of a wall-floor junction

The linear thermal transmittance of a wall to basement floor junction is calculated according to EN ISO 10211 using the program TRISCO. In an extra step, floor heating is added.

Keywords: TRISCO, BISCO, wall floor junction, linear thermal transmittance, thermal bridge

B1-Linear and point thermal transmittance of thermal bridges

B1-Linear and point thermal transmittance of thermal bridges

The linear thermal transmittance and the point thermal transmittance for an external wall containing both a linear thermal bridge and a point thermal bridge are calculated using the program TRISCO.

Keywords: TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance, point thermal transmittance, thermal bridge

B13-The linear transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail

B13-The linear transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail

A procedure to calculate the linear thermal transmittance of a ground floor – window sill construction detail according to EN ISO 13370 is explained using a case study.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, ground floor, window sill, linear thermal transmittance, EN 13370, EN 10211

B5-Repeating thermal bridging according to EN ISO 10211

B5-Repeating thermal bridging according to EN ISO 10211

A massive brickwork wall is internally insulated.  The thermal insulation is interrupted by a wooden stud at regular distances, causing a thermal bridge effect.  This thermal bridge effect is quantified using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, thermal bridge, repetition, thermal transmittance

2D-3D Thermal evaluation of a roof junction

2D-3D Thermal evaluation of a roof junction

For a roof junction construction detail the linear thermal transmittance and the point thermal transmittance are derived, for both the internal and the external dimension system, using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.  Also the 3D temperature course is derived allowing a surface condensation risk evaluation.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, thermal bridge, roof junction

B15-Linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner

B15-Linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner

The calculation of the linear thermal transmittance of a wooden frame corner is discussed. This thermal bridge effect is quantified using the programs BISCO and TRISCO.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, linear thermal transmittance, wooden frame, corner

B4-Thermal analysis of a wall to window junction according to EN ISO 13789

B4-Thermal analysis of a wall to window junction according to EN ISO 13789

The thermal transmittance of a wall-window junction is calculated according to the applicable European standards.  2 approaches to analyse the problem are discussed: a 2D heat transmission calculation and a heat transmission calculation ‘by hand’.

Keywords: BISCO, TRISCO, wall window junction, EN 6946, EN 10077-2, EN 10211

J1-Licence specifications: overview

J1-Licence specifications: overview

  • Overview of the specifications of the different Physibel licence options

Keywords: licence

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J2-Technical requirements for Physibel applications

J2-Technical requirements for Physibel applications

  • Technical requirements for work stations to run Physibel applications

Keywords: requirements, hardware, GPU

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J3 - Updating software to a new version

J3 - Updating software to a new version

  • Information on how to update software to a new version (for perpetual and subscription licences)

Keywords: version, update, AMP, subscription

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J4-Setting up hardware key licence

J4-Setting up hardware key licence

  • How to activate a stand-alone hardware key licence?

Keywords: software installation, hardware key, licence, drivers, Sentinel

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J5-Setting up software licences: stand-alone

J5-Setting up software licences: stand-alone

  • How to activate a stand-alone software licence?

Keywords: software installation, software licence, stand-alone

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J6-Transfer a stand-alone software licence

J6-Transfer a stand-alone software licence

  • How to transfer a stand-alone software licence to a different computer?

Keywords: software installation, software licence, stand-alone, transfer

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J7-Setting up a network floating licence (admin info)

J7-Setting up a network floating licence (admin info)

  • How to set up and manage a network floating licence (info for admins)

Keywords: software installation, software licence, network floating, admin

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J8-Using a network floating licence (user info)

J8-Using a network floating licence (user info)

  • How to use floating licences from a network database: information for users?

Keywords: software installation, software licence, network floating, user

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J9-Using a cloud-based floating licence

J9-Using a cloud-based floating licence

  • How to use a cloud-based floating software licence

Keywords: software installation, software licence, cloud-based floating

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